Working with FXML in JavaFX

Are you tired of writing long and tedious Java code to create user interfaces for your desktop applications? Do you want to create stunning UIs with minimal effort? Look no further than FXML in JavaFX!

FXML is an XML-based markup language that allows you to define user interfaces for JavaFX applications. It separates the UI design from the application logic, making it easier to maintain and modify your code. In this article, we'll explore the basics of working with FXML in JavaFX and how it can make your life as a developer easier.

Getting Started with FXML

To get started with FXML, you'll need to have a basic understanding of JavaFX. If you're new to JavaFX, check out our Getting Started with JavaFX guide.

Once you have a basic understanding of JavaFX, you can start creating FXML files. FXML files are typically created using a visual editor, such as Scene Builder. Scene Builder is a free visual layout tool that allows you to create FXML files by dragging and dropping UI components onto a canvas.

To create a new FXML file in Scene Builder, simply select "New" from the "File" menu and choose "FXML Document". You can then drag and drop UI components onto the canvas and customize their properties using the Properties panel.

Once you've created your FXML file, you can load it into your JavaFX application using the FXMLLoader class. The FXMLLoader class is responsible for parsing the FXML file and creating the corresponding UI components.

Here's an example of how to load an FXML file in JavaFX:

FXMLLoader loader = new FXMLLoader(getClass().getResource("example.fxml"));
Parent root = loader.load();

In this example, we're loading an FXML file named "example.fxml" and creating a Parent node from the resulting UI components. We can then add this Parent node to our JavaFX Scene and display it on the screen.

Understanding the FXML Structure

FXML files are structured using XML tags and attributes. Each UI component is represented by a corresponding XML tag, such as <Button> or <Label>. The attributes of these tags define the properties of the UI component, such as its text or size.

Here's an example of an FXML file that defines a simple UI with a Label and a Button:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<?import javafx.scene.control.*?>
<?import javafx.scene.layout.*?>

<AnchorPane xmlns:fx="" fx:controller="com.example.Controller">
    <Label text="Hello, World!" AnchorPane.leftAnchor="10" AnchorPane.topAnchor="10"/>
    <Button text="Click Me!" AnchorPane.leftAnchor="10" AnchorPane.topAnchor="40"/>

In this example, we're using the <AnchorPane> tag to define the root node of our UI. We're also importing the javafx.scene.control and javafx.scene.layout packages using the <?import> tag.

Inside the <AnchorPane> tag, we're defining a <Label> and a <Button> component. We're using the text attribute to set the text of the Label and Button, and the AnchorPane.leftAnchor and AnchorPane.topAnchor attributes to position them on the screen.

Using Controllers with FXML

FXML files can also be associated with a Java class, known as a controller. The controller class is responsible for handling user input and updating the UI based on application logic.

To associate an FXML file with a controller class, you can use the fx:controller attribute in the root node of the FXML file. Here's an example:

<AnchorPane xmlns:fx="" fx:controller="com.example.Controller">

In this example, we're associating the FXML file with a controller class named com.example.Controller.

Once you've associated an FXML file with a controller class, you can access the UI components defined in the FXML file using the @FXML annotation. Here's an example:

public class Controller {
    @FXML private Label label;
    @FXML private Button button;

    // ...

In this example, we're using the @FXML annotation to inject the Label and Button components defined in the FXML file into our controller class. We can then use these components to update the UI based on application logic.


FXML is a powerful tool for creating user interfaces in JavaFX. It allows you to separate the UI design from the application logic, making it easier to maintain and modify your code. With FXML, you can create stunning UIs with minimal effort, and focus on what really matters - building great desktop applications.

In this article, we've explored the basics of working with FXML in JavaFX, including how to create FXML files, load them into your JavaFX application, and use controllers to handle user input. We hope this article has been helpful in getting you started with FXML, and we look forward to seeing what you create with it!

Editor Recommended Sites

AI and Tech News
Best Online AI Courses
Classic Writing Analysis
Tears of the Kingdom Roleplay
Kubectl Tips: Kubectl command line tips for the kubernetes ecosystem
Site Reliability SRE: Guide to SRE: Tutorials, training, masterclass
Tree Learn: Learning path guides for entry into the tech industry. Flowchart on what to learn next in machine learning, software engineering
Startup Value: Discover your startup's value. Articles on valuation
Scikit-Learn Tutorial: Learn Sklearn. The best guides, tutorials and best practice